|Terms of Trade:||FOB,CFR,CIF|
|Delivery Time:||15 Days|
Model No.: 7664-38-2
|Phosphoric acid Basic information|
|Product Name:||Phosphoric acid|
|Synonyms:||FEMA 2900;EXTRAN(R) AP 21;EXTRAN(R) AP21, ACID RINSE DETERGENT WITH PHOSPHORIC ACID;EXTRAN(R) AP21 DETERGENT;EXTRAN AP 21;H3PO4;U.N. 1805;Acide phosphorique|
|Product Categories:||INORGANIC & ORGANIC CHEMICALS;Inorganics;HPLC;inorganic acid;HPLC and LCMS Mobile Phase Additive;Food additives;HPLC Buffer;HPLC Buffers;HPLC Buffers - SolutionChromatography/CE Reagents;Solution;PAlphabetic;Analytical Standards;NMRStable Isotopes;P;-;PER - POLA;Spectroscopy;Alphabetical Listings;Flavors and Fragrances;O-P;Organic Phosphonates;Pyridines|
|Phosphoric acid Chemical Properties|
|Melting point|| ~40 °C(lit.) |
|Boiling point|| 158 °C(lit.) |
|density|| 1.685 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.) |
|vapor density|| 3.4 (vs air) |
|vapor pressure|| 2.2 mm Hg ( 20 °C) |
|refractive index|| n20/D 1.433 |
|FEMA||2900 | PHOSPHORIC ACID|
|storage temp.||Store below +30°C.|
|solubility|| H2O: soluble |
|form||Solid or Viscous Liquid|
|color|| ≤10(APHA) |
|PH||<0.5 (100g/l, H2O, 20℃)|
|λmax|| λ: 260 nm Amax: ≤0.05 |
λ: 280 nm Amax: ≤0.04
|Exposure limits||TLV-TWA 1 mg/m3 (ACGIH, MSHA, and OSHA); TLV-STEL 3 mg/m3 (ACGIH).|
|CAS DataBase Reference||7664-38-2(CAS DataBase Reference)|
|NIST Chemistry Reference||Phosphoric acid(7664-38-2)|
|EPA Substance Registry System||Phosphoric acid(7664-38-2)|
|RIDADR|| UN 3453 8/PG 3 |
|WGK Germany|| 3 |
|RTECS|| TB6300000 |
|HS Code||2809 20 00|
|Hazardous Substances Data||7664-38-2(Hazardous Substances Data)|
|Toxicity|| ADI 0 to 70 mg / kg (total phosphate content in terms of phosphorus, FAO / WHO, 2001). |
GRAS (FDA, § 182.1073, 2000).
LD501530mg / kg (rat, oral).
In case of daily intake of 2 ~ 4 g, it can cause mild diarrhea. The amount of sour agent used as a cola drink is 0.02% to 0.06%.
|Phosphoric acid Usage And Synthesis|
|Description|| Phosphoric acid was prepared first by Robert Boyle in 1694 by dissolving phosphorus pentoxide in water. Phosphoric acid is probably the most important compound of phosphorus. It is the second largest inorganic chemical by volume, after sulfuric acid, marketed in the United States. |
The single most important application of Phosphoric acid is manufacturing phosphate salts for fertilizers. Such fertilizer phosphates include sodium, calcium, ammonium, and potassium phosphates. Other applications are in metal pickling and surface treatment for removal of metal oxides from metal surfaces; electropolishing of aluminum; as a bonding agent in various refractory products such as alumina and magnesia; as a catalyst in making nylon and gasoline; as a dehydrating agent; in fireproofing wood and fabrics; in lithographic engraving; in textile dyeing; in dental cement; in coagulating rubber latex; in purifying hydrogen peroxide; and as a laboratory reagent. Dilute solutions of phosphoric acid are used as additives to carbonated beverages for a pleasing sour taste. Also, dilute acid is used in refining sugar; as a nutrient; and as a buffering agent in preparing jam, jelly, and antibiotics. The commercial phosphoric acid is 85% (w/w) in strength.
|Chemical Properties|| Phosphoric acid is a colourless, odourless chemical substance. |
Phosphoric acid on combustion forms toxic fumes (phosphorous oxides) and decomposes on contact with alcohols, aldehydes, cyanides, ketones, phenols, esters, sulphides, and halogenated organics producing toxic fumes. It violently polymerises under the influence of azo compounds and epoxides attacks many metals forming flammable/explosive gas. Phosphoric acid violently polymerises under the influence of azo compounds and epoxides, reacting violently with bases. It has wide-scale application in industries, in the manufacture of superphosphates for fertilisers, phosphate salts, polyphosphates, and detergents, as a catalyst in ethylene manufacture and hydrogen peroxide purification as a flavour, acidulant, synergistic anti-oxidant, and sequestrant in food. In dental cements, in process engraving, metal rustproofing, latex coagulation, analytical reagent, and as a veterinary product in the treatment of lead poisoning. Food-grade phosphoric acid is used to acidify foods and beverages. It provides a tangy or sour taste and, being a mass-produced chemical, is available cheaply and in large quantities. Phosphoric acid, used in many soft drinks, has been linked to lower bone density in epidemiological studies. In brief, phosphoric acid is a strong acid and common industrial chemical used in the manufacture of a wide number of products, notably porcelain and metal cleaners, detergents, and fertilisers. It is also used as a food additive and is a major constituent of many soft drinks. Low phosphate concentrations are found in drinking water to which it is added in some areas in order to reduce lead solubility.
|History|| Phosphoric acid was produced but not identified by alchemists in ancient times. It derives its name from the element phosphorus, which was discovered in 1669 by Henning Brand (1630 1710).Scheele subsequently isolated phosphorus from bone ash and produced phosphoric acid by reacting phosphorus and nitric acid. Scheele's method replaced bone as the main source of phosphorus rather than urine. |
John Bennett Lawes (1814 1900) patented a process in 1841 of making superphosphate from bones and later extended his process to phosphates obtained from rock. Superphosphates are made by treating Ca3(PO4)2 with sulfuric acid to make more soluble calcium hydrogen phosphates: Ca3(PO4)2 + 2H2SO4 Ca(H2PO4)2 + 2CaSO4. In this reaction Ca(H2PO4)2 is monobasic calcium phosphate, which is also called superphosphate. Calcium hydrogen phosphates (superphosphates) are more water soluble and therefore more readily available to plants.
|Uses|| Phosphoric acid is second only to sulfuric acid as an industrial acid and consistently ranksin the top 10 chemicals used globally.States, but it is used in a number of other applications. Phosphateswere used as builders and water softeners. A builder is a substance added to soaps or detergentsto increase their cleansing power. |
Phosphoric acid is used as an intermediate in the production of animal feed supplements,water treatment chemicals, metal surface treatments, etching agent, and personal care productssuch as toothpaste. It is used as a catalyst in the petroleum and polymer industry. Phosphoricacid is used in food as a preservative, an acidulant, and flavor enhancer; it acidifies carbonateddrinks such as Coca Cola and Pepsi, giving them a tangy flavor. Phosphoric acid is used as arust remover and metal cleaner. Naval Jelly is approximately 25% phosphoric acid. Other usesfor phosphoric acid include opacity control in glass production, textile dyeing, rubber latexcoagulation, and dental cements.
|Preparation|| Low-purity technical grade phosphoric acid for use in fertilizers is produced from phosphate rocks by digestion with concentrated sulfuric acid. The apatite types, primarily consisting of calcium phosphate phosphate rocks, are used: Ca3(PO4)2 + 3H2SO4 + 6H2O → 2H3PO4 + 3(CaSO4•2H2O) |
The insoluble calcium sulfate slurry is filtered out. Acid from this wet process is impure but can be purified by various methods. Purification steps involve precipitation, solvent extraction, crystallization, and ion exchange techniques.
Phosphoric acid also can be made by many different methods. Dissolution of phosphorus pentoxide in water and boiling yields phosphoric acid. Pure phosphoric acid can be obtained by burning phosphorus in a mixture of air and steam:
P4 (l) + 5O2 (g) →P4O10 (s)
P4O10 (s) + H2O (g) → 4H3PO4 (l)
The acid also may be prepared by heating violet phosphorus with 33% nitric acid:
4P + 10HNO3 + H2O → 4H3PO4 + 5NO ↑ + 5NO2 ↑
or by heating red phosphorus with nitric acid (1:1). The overall equation is:
P + 3HNO3 → H3PO4 + NO + 2NO2
|Production Methods||The majority of phosphoric acid is made by digesting phosphate rock (essentially tricalcium phosphate) with sulfuric acid; the phosphoric acid is then separated by slurry filtration. Purification is achieved via chemical precipitation, solvent extraction, crystallization, or ion exchange.|
|Health Hazard||Phosphoric acid is less corrosive and hazardous than is concentrated sulfuric or nitricacid. Its concentrated solutions are irritantsto the skin and mucous membranes. Thevapors (P2O5 fumes) can cause irritation tothe throat and coughing but could be tolerated at <10 mg/m3.The acute oral toxicity in rats is reported tobe low, the LD50 value being 1530 mg/kg(NIOSH 1986).|
|Fire Hazard||Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.|
|Pharmaceutical Applications|| Phosphoric acid is widely used as an acidifying agent in a variety of pharmaceutical formulations. It is used in pharmaceutical products as part of a buffer system when combined with a phosphate salt such as sodium phosphate, monobasic or dibasic. It is also widely used in food preparations as an acidulant, flavor, and synergistic antioxidant (0.001–0.005%) and sequestrant. |
Therapeutically, dilute phosphoric acid has been used welldiluted in preparations used in the treatment of nausea and vomiting. Phosphoric acid 35% gel has also been used to etch tooth enamel and to enhance delivery of drugs through the nail.
) Nanosized hydroxyapatite powder was made by combining phosphoric acid with egg shells.
|Agricultural Uses||Orthophosphoric acid is obtained by reacting phosphorus pentoxide with water or by reacting rock phosphate with concentrated sulphuric acid. Salts of ammonium,calcium or potassium with this acid are called orthophosphates, and these are used as fertilizers. Nearly 80% of the phosphorus pentoxide in fertilizers is derived from orthophosphoric acid. Commercial phosphates based on orthophosphoric acid, also known as phosphoric acid, are triple superphosphate, ammonium phosphate, ammonium polyphosphate, nitrophosphate, orthophosphate fertilizer and liquid fertilizers.|
|Industrial uses||As a cleanser for metals, phosphoric acid produces a light etch on steel, aluminum, or zinc, which aids paint adhesion. Deoxidine is a phosphoric acid cleanser for metals. Nielite D is phosphoric acid with a rust inhibitor, used as a nonfuming pickling acid for steel. Albrite is available in 75, 80, and 85% concentrations in food and electronic grades, both high-purity specifications. DAB and Phosbrite are called Bright Dip grades, for cleaning applications. Phosphoric anhydride, or phosphorus pentoxide, P2O5, is a white, water-soluble powder used as a dehydrating agent and also as an opalizer for glass. It is also used as a catalyst in asphalt coatings to prevent softening at elevated temperatures and brittleness at low temperatures.|
|Safety Profile||Human poison by ingestion. Moderately toxic by skin contact. A corrosive irritant to eyes, skin, and mucous membranes, and a systemic irritant by inhalation. A common air contaminant. A strong acid. Mixtures with nitromethane are explosive. Reacts with chlorides + stainless steel to form explosive hydrogen gas. Potentially violent reaction with solum tetrahydroborate. Dangerous; when heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of POx|
|Potential Exposure||Phosphoric acid is used in the manufacture of fertilizers, phosphate salts; polyphosphates, detergents, activated carbon; animal feed; ceramics, dental cement; pharmaceuticals, soft drinks; gelatin, rust inhibitors; wax, and rubber latex. Exposure may also occur during electropolishing, engraving, photoengraving, lithographing, metal cleaning; sugar refining; and water-treating.|
|First aid||Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. Medical observation is recommended for 2448 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy.|
|storage||When stored at a low temperature, phosphoric acid may solidify, forming a mass of colorless crystals, comprising the hemihydrate, which melts at 28°C. Phosphoric acid should be stored in an airtight container in a cool, dry place. Stainless steel containers may be used.|
|Shipping||UN1805 Phosphoric acid solution, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material. UN3543 Phosphoric acid solid, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material.|
|Incompatibilities||The substance is a medium strong acid. Incompatible with strong caustics; most metals. Readily attacks and reacts with metals forming flammable hydrogen gas. Do not mix with solutions containing bleach or ammonia. Violently polymerizes on contact with azo compounds; epoxides, and other polymerizable compounds. Decomposes on contact with metals, alcohols, aldehydes, cyanides, ketones, phenols, esters, sulfides, halogenated organics; producing toxic fumes. Corrosive to common metals and possibly to some rubbers and plastics.|
|Phosphoric acid Preparation Products And Raw materials|
|Raw materials||Hydrogen peroxide-->Celite -->Phosphorus-->Barium hydroxide -->White phosphorus-->ROCK PHOSPHATE-->Phosphate rock powder-->phosphoric acid by wet process-->Ammonium hydrogen sulfate-->Sodium molybdate dihydrate-->CALCIUM SULFATE HEMIHYDRATE-->Microvoid filter film|
|Preparation Products||Pyrophosphoric acid-->amphoteric polyacrylamide-->3-METHYLTHIOPHENE-2-CARBONYL CHLORIDE-->Ferric pyrophosphate-->IODOCYCLOHEXANE-->2-ACETYL-5-CYANOTHIOPHENE-->alcohol polyoxyethylene ether phosphoric monoester ethanolamine-->ZINC PHOSPHATE, MONOBASIC-->Aluminium phosphate-->Phosphatizing liquid-->Sodium dihydrogen phosphate-->Cefcapene pivoxil-->Acid modified starch-->Aluminum dihydrogen phosphate-->4-Chromanone-->2-Acetyl-3-methylthiophene-->2-(2-Bromoethyl)-1,3-dioxolane-->4,4'-BIS(BROMOMETHYL)BIPHENYL-->Calcium phosphate-->Maddrell's salt for food-->TSP-->Sewerage inhibitor-->Phosphatizing agent-->Starch, phosphate-->4'-Ethoxyacetophenone-->Conditioner for metal surface-->SODIUM PHOSPHOTUNGSTATE-->Monosodium phosphate-->MAGNESIUM HYDROGEN PHOSPHATE TRIHYDRATE-->AMMONIUM PHOSPHOMOLYBDATE-->2-ACETYL-5-IODOTHIOPHENE-->MAGNESIUM PHOSPHATE-->Alendronic acid-->Sodium hydrogenphosphate dihydrate-->ZINC DIHYDROGEN PHOSPHATE-->PHOSPHOMOLYBDIC ACID HYDRATE-->hydration catalyst for propylene-->Tetrabutylammonium phosphate-->non-dip adhesive nodule-holeless honeycomb structural adhesive J-23-2-->Aluminum triphosphate|